儿童腹泻问题的计划

Diarrhea kills one and a half million children each year — one in five child deaths worldwide.

The only disease that kills more children under age five is pneumonia.

每年,腹泻夺去 150 万儿童生命,占全球儿童死亡人数 1/5。导致更多 5 岁以下儿童死亡的疾病只有肺炎。(译注:肺炎、腹泻是 5 岁以下儿童死亡的两大主因)

Experts say diarrhea causes more child deaths than AIDS, malaria and measles combined.

New findings show it also kills more than a million adolescents and elderly people every year.

专家称,死于腹泻的儿童数量比死于艾滋病、疟疾和麻疹儿童数量的总和还多。新的研究表明,每年还有 100 多万青少年和老年人死于腹泻。

Therese Dooley is a senior adviser at UNICEF, the United Nations Children’s Fund.

Therese Dooley 是联合国儿童基金会的高级顾问。

THERESE DOOLEY: “In addition to the deaths,there’s about two-point-five billion — and I want to emphasize, about two-point-five billion cases of diarrhea among children every year.”

THERESE DOOLEY:“除了死亡人数,约有 25 亿,我想强调一下,每年约有 25亿儿童腹泻病例。”

But a new report says sixty percent of those in developing countries do not get the recommended treatment.

The report, appearing in the Lancet medical journal, is from UNICEF and the World Health Organization.

It includes a seven-point plan for countries to use to prevent and treat diarrhea.

但一份新报告称,那些发展中国家 60%的儿童没有采用推荐疗法。这份报告刊登在《柳叶刀》医学杂志上,由联合国儿童基金会和世界卫生组织提供,其内容包括帮助各个国家预防和治疗腹泻的七点计划。

The condition causes fluid loss and reduces the body’s supply of zinc. This mineral is needed for normal growth and development.

腹泻病症会导致体液流失,降低人体的锌供应。锌这种矿物质是(人体)正常生长发育所必需的。

For the past five years, UNICEF and the W.H.O. have recommended zinc supplements to treat diarrhea.

They also recommend fluid replacement solutions made from what are called low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts.

在过去的 5 年里,联合国儿童基金会和世界卫生组织已经推荐了补锌治疗腹泻方法。他们也建议(使用)体液替代溶液。这种溶液由被称为“低压渗透口服补液盐”配方制成。

Yet zinc supplements remain largely unavailable in the developing world.

And the fluid replacement solutions can also be difficult to find.

然而,补锌方法在发展中国家使用相当困难,而体液替代溶液也同样难以找到。

A leading cause of diarrhea in children is the rotavirus.

Public health officials are now advised to include the rotavirus vaccine in all national immunization programs.

But the vaccine is still not available in many developing countries.

儿童腹泻的首要原因是轮状病毒。现在,(该报告)建议公共卫生官员将轮状病毒列入所有国家免疫计划中。然而,在很多发展中国家,这种疫苗仍然难以获得。

The report says new ways to expand the use of treatments are now being developed.

Proposals include, for example, supplying treatment kits through community health workers or specialcampaigns.

该报告称,现在,正在研究普及推荐疗法应用的新途径。提议包括,例如,通过社区卫生工作者或专项活动提供成套治疗用品。

Experts say children with diarrhea should continue to eat, and babies should continue to breastfeed.

专家表示,患有腹泻的儿童应继续饮食,而婴儿应继续母乳喂养。

To help prevent diarrhea, the report suggests that children receive both the rotavirus and measles vaccines.

It also calls for improving supplies of clean water in developing countries.

Another prevention measure is hand washing with soap.

为了帮助预防腹泻,该报告建议儿童同时注射轮状病毒和麻疹疫苗。该报告还呼吁发展中国家改善清洁用水的供应。另一项预防措施是用肥皂洗手。

Diarrhea can be easy to prevent. Campaigns to fight childhood diarrhea had some success during the nineteen seventies and eighties.

The authors of the report hope this new plan will help return the issue to worldwide importance.

腹泻很容易预防。于 20 世纪 70 年代和80 年代开展的针对儿童腹泻的宣传活动取得了一定的成功。该报告的作者希望,这项新计划将有助于使儿童腹泻问题重新成为全球大事。

原创文章,作者:buffalo106,如若转载,请注明出处:http://www.buffalotone.com/?p=1041

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