不定式的逻辑主语

二、不定式的逻辑主语

 

有时不定式前可以带有一个由介词for引出的逻辑主语。如:

It’s too expensive for her to buy. 太贵了,她买不起。

The box is too heavy for the boy to carry. 这个箱子太重,这男孩提不起。

The print is too small for me to read without glasses. 印刷字体太小,我不戴眼镜就看不清。

 

三、不定式是否带宾语

在通常情况下,too…to…结构中的不定式可根据其是否及物来确定它是否带宾语。如:

He is too tired to go any further. 他太累了,不能再往前走了。(不定式to go不及物,无需带宾语)

She is too poor to buy such a nice a dress. 她太穷,买不起那件漂亮的连衣裙。(不定式to buy后带有宾语 such a nice a dress)

但是,若句子主语与其后不定式有动宾关系,那么,其后的及物动词不定式不能带宾语。如:

The nice dress is too expensive for her to buy. 这件漂亮的连衣裙太贵了,她买不起。(to buy在此虽为及物动词,但由于句子主语the nice dress与该不定式to buy有动宾关系,故to buy后不宜再接代词it作宾语)

注意:若句子主语与其后不定式有动宾关系,且其中的动词为不及物动词,此时应注意在其后加适当的介词。如:

The room is too dirty to live in. 这房间太脏,不能住。(句末的介词in不可省略)

 

四、不定式是否用被动语态

上面讲到,若句子主语与其后不定式有动宾关系,其后作为及物动词的不定式不再带宾语。此时还需注意,该不定式通常也不用被动式,尽管意义上是被动的。如:

The text is too difficult to understand. 这课文太难了,理解不了。

The text is too difficult for the students to understand. 这课文太难了,学生理解不了。

但在某些特殊的语境,其中的不定式必须要用被动式。如:

He spoke in a voice too low to be heard. 他说话的声音太低,听不见。

He is too young to be sent to America for advanced study. 他太年轻,不能送到美国去深造。

主语是不定式动作的承受者时,不定式既可以时主动也可以说被动:

The milk is too hot to drink.= The milk is too hot to be drunk.牛奶太贪了,喝不了。

The box is too heavy to carry. = The box is too heavy to be carried.箱子太重,搬不起来。

Atoms are too small to see. = Atoms are too small to be seen.原子太小,看不见。

五、与so [such]…that结构的转换

 

1. The box is too heavy for me to carry.

→The box is so heavy that I can’t carry it.箱子太重,我扛不动。

→It is such a heavy box that I can’t carry it.

2. The child is too young to dress himself.

→The child is so young that he can’t dress himself.

→He is such a young child that he can’t dress himself.

注:有时还可与 not…enough to…转换,但此时要注意把原句型中的形容词改为相对应的反义词。如:

The child is too young to dress himself.

→The child is not old enough to dress himself.

孩子太小,不会自己穿衣。

He’s so young that he can’t take care of himself.

He isn’t old enough to take care of himself.

He’s too young to take care of himself.

他太小了,照顾不了自己。

六、too…to…有时可表示肯定意义

在以下几种情况,too…to…结构可以表示肯定意义,而不是否定意义:

1. 当不定式前有否定词修饰时。比较:

He is too foolish to understand this. 他太蠢,不会明白这一点。

He is too clever not to understand this. 他太聪明,不会不明白这一点。

She was too kind not to help you.她很善良,不会不帮助你。

Alicy is too careful not to forget it.

爱丽丝非常细心,不会忘记这件事的。

2. 当副词too的前面有否定词修饰时。如:

It’s never too late to mend.改过不嫌晚。

Never too old to learn. 活到老学到老。

It’s never too late to stop smoking. 戒烟何时都不算晚。(直译:永远不会太迟而不能戒烟)

English is not too difficult to learn. 英语并不太难学。

 

3.如果too后面的形容词表示主语的状态、心理活动、情感态度(常见的有glad, easy, ready, anxious, eager, willing, happy、pleased,apt, satisfied, inclined,kind等),并与其后的不定式构成固定搭配,这时too含有肯定意义,表示“very, extremely”的意思。例句:

We are only too happy to take care of your dog for the weekend.

我们非常乐意周末帮你照顾狗狗。

Mr.Smith was too eager to see her.

史密斯先生极想见到她。

原创文章,作者:buffalo106,如若转载,请注明出处:http://www.buffalotone.com/?p=2044

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